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Title: Antioxidant activities and Cytoprotective effects of Indole derivatives on Ethanolinduced
Authors: Alhan Adam Mohamed Salim
Keywords: Antioxidant activity
Cytoprotective effects
Indole derivatives
Gastric ulcer
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: University Malaya
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective effects of oral administration of the newly synthesized copper and zinc indole ligand complexes, namely: Bis (4-chloro-2-{2-(1H-indole-3-y1) ethyliminomehtyl} phenolato-k2N, O) copper(II) (molecular formula: C34H28N4O2Cl2Cu) and Bis (2-{2-(1H-indole-3-y1)ethyliminiomethyl}-4-nitrphenolato-k2N,O) Zinc (II) (molecular formula: C34H28N6O6 Zn) on gastric lesions by ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. Antioxidant activity, mucous secretion and pH were assessed for their roles and underlying mechanisms in cytoprotection The antioxidant activity of the indole compounds was evaluated for the ability to scavenge free radicals using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the determination of total antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The effects of the indole compounds on the stomach cells, pH and mucus secretion were assessed to determine their correlation with anti-ulcer property. The results have suggested that several factors may be involved in the cytoprotection afforded by the indole complexes. These include mucus-bicarbonate which played a major role in avoiding a direct contact between hydrochloric acid and stomach mucosal layer that had prevented the formation of gastric mucosa necrosis. Absolute ethanol used to destroy this mucus-bicarbonate barrier and the new indolemetal complexes was used to determine the cytoprotective effects. Cytoprotective effect is the capability of the compound to prevent the formation of gastric mucosa necrosis. Omeprazole, a type of common drug which is currently used in treating gastric damage, was used as a positive group for this study. The negative control group showed (1310.50 ± 99.79 mm) 2 area of lesion formation, as compared to omeprazole that had reduced lesion formation by 68.9%. Meanwhile, both indole-Cu and indole-Zn complexes have shown a significant reduction in the lesion. The indole-Zn complex at a low dose of 30 mg/kg had decreased the lesion by 79.5% and a high dose of 60mg/kg had decreased the lesion by 79.2%. The lower dose of indole-Cu complex showed a similar reduction as the higher dose which gave about 100% inhibition. In addition, both doses for indole-Cu complex were found to reduce completely the ulcer area (0.00 + 0.00 mm) 2 with 100% inhibition as compared to the control group (p<0.05). These results indicated that copper and zinc indole complexes demonstrated an antiulcerogenic effect based on the cytoprotective activity, since they were found to significantly reduce the ethanol-induced ulcer. The indole-Zn complex has demonstrated a higher DPPH scavenging activity, 26 ± 7.390 % while the indole-Cu complex depicted a much lower DPPH scavenging activity 12 ± .564 % in 250 μΜ. In addition, at the same concentration of 250 μΜ, the indole-Zn complex was found to have higher ferric reducing power (441.4 μM) when compared to indole-Cu complex (210.9 μM)). Both the complexes showed a lower ferric reducing power value compared to vitamin C (2045.2μM). Although the two complexes showed significant prevention of ethanol induced gastric ulcer, this does not correlated to the pH measurement and total antioxidant capacity. The results also suggested that the mucus weight correlates to the anti-ulcer property of both metal complexed indole derivatives. It is rather possible to conclude that both indole complex compounds with a high mucus weight correlates with a high anti-ulcer property.
Description: Dissertation (M.C.S.) -- Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 2009.
URI: http://dspace.fsktm.um.edu.my/handle/1812/516
Appears in Collections:Masters Dissertations : Science

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