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Title: Analysis of phytonutrients from palm concentrates by high performance liquid chromatography
Authors: Chandrasekaram, Kumuthini
Keywords: Palm phytonutrient
Column chromatography
Flash chromatography
High Performance Liquid
Palm Oil
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: University Malaya
Abstract: Palm phytonutrient concentrates is one of the by-products obtained during the production of palm biodiesel. Palm phytonutrient concentrates had been proved to have a far higher concentration of phytonutrients than in crude palm oil with carotenes (20000-25000ppm), tocols (19000-20000ppm), sterols (15000-16000), squalene (2900- 3100) and coenzyme Q (1500-1600ppm). This makes palm phytonutrient concentrates an ideal starting material for palm phytonutrients based studies and production. Palm phytonutrients are extremely sensitive towards heat. Usually at normal room temperature is enough to cause phytonutrients to disintegrate. Based on these factors, samples of palm phytonutrient concentrates were analysed at two different temperatures. A set of samples were stored at room temperature with a temperature range between 28-32°C. Another set of samples were refrigerated at a temperature between -14 to -18°C. The results showed that the loss of concentration in the phytonutrients occurred in both samples. However, samples that stored at room temperature suffered a huge amount of loss up to 70% of its initial concentration. On the other hand, the refrigerated sample only suffered a loss of 10% to its initial concentration. Palm phytonutrients extracted at high concentrations would be ideal to be consumed as supplements as they are all natural. Apart from that, good quality phytonutrients are also effective standard reference materials. Bearing this theory, palm phytonutrients were separated into groups and isolated using common chromatography techniques such as open column chromatography, flash chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Open column and flash chromatography was successfully utilized to separate palm phytonutrients into groups of carotenes, squalene, tocols and coenzyme Q. Flash chromatography was preferred for its efficiency. HPLC isolation of tocols was accomplished with α-tocotrienol, γ-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol extracted at high concentrations of 640000- 940000ppm. Squalene and coenzyme Q were concentrated to more than 800000ppm. Apart from that, five components of carotenes were also identified in palm phytonutrient concentrates namely lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, phytoene and phytofluene.
Description: Dissertation -- Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 2009.
URI: http://dspace.fsktm.um.edu.my/handle/1812/581
Appears in Collections:Masters Dissertations : Science

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