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Title: Application of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) as tertiary wastewater treatment agents
Authors: Siti Zulaikha Othman
Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes
Water hyacinth
Pistia stratiotes L.
Water lettuce
Wastewater treatment process
Issue Date: Oct-2008
Publisher: University Malaya
Abstract: ABSTRACT Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (water hyacinth) and Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) were studied to gauge the effectiveness of nutrients, bacteria and heavy metals removal in domestic and small-scale industry sewage of Kuala Lumpur city. Both were grown in approximately 68 L wastewater with 21-days retention period in fiberglass tanks. Readings for water temperature, turbidity, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll a, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) were taken in-situ every five days, whilst analysis for total suspended solid (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), orthophosphate (PO4-P), enumeration of total bacteria, heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) content were done in the laboratory. Water temperature with plants was in the range of 24.9oC to 27.5oC; whilst the mean for pH in the E. crassipes and P. stratiotes microcosms were 7.3 and 7.7 respectively. The removal efficiency by both plants was in the range of 50 to 93% for BOD5, 9 to 75% for COD, and 6 to 100% for TSS. An increase in the concentration of dissolved oxygen from 4 to 52% was also observed although in some cases there was a decrease in the concentration of DO. There were drastic drops in not only NH4-N but also NO3-N content in the water. The range of decrease of NH4-N was from 30 to 96% in both tanks. However, untreated water had a higher removal efficiency of NH4-N (99%) compared to the treated water due to the consumption by the algae which has been observed had grew in the tanks. In contrast, NO3-N content in the water was found to have been removed greatly by both plants from 0.2 to 12.7 mgL-1 and PO4-P content from 1.51 to 6 mgL-1 compared to the untreated water which was from 14 to 28.2 mgL-1 (NO3-N) and from 5.3 to 11.1 mgL-1 (PO4-P). Enumerations of total bacteria decreased from 30 to 81%, although the number of colonies formed sometimes were higher with root’s plants presence. As well as chlorophyll a or algae concentration which the growth were inhibited by the macrophytes and decreased from 20 to 52% compared to the control. The heavy metal concentrations in the sewage also dropped (Cd, 94.7%; Cu, 92%; Zn, 95.2%) as they were efficiently absorbed by both macrophytes especially by their roots, leaves and followed by stems (E. crassipes). In overall, the sewage effluent quality was much improved after undergo the treatment. ABSTRAK Kajian terhadap Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (keladi bunting) dan Pistia stratiotes L. (kiambang) telah dijalankan bagi menguji tahap keefisienan untuk mengurangkan kandungan nutrien, bakteria dan logam berat dalam air kumbahan domestik dan industri kecil-kecilan di Kuala Lumpur. Tumbuhan diletakkan di dalam tangki yang berisi kira-kira 68 L air kumbahan selama 21 hari. Bacaan suhu air, kekeruhan, konduktiviti, pH, oksigen terlarut, klorofil a, nitrogen-ammonium (NH4-N) dan nitrogen-nitrat (NO3-N) diambil secara in-situ setiap lima hari, manakala analisis untuk jumlah pepejal terampai (TSS), keperluan oksigen biokimia (BOD5), keperluan oksigen kimia (COD), alkaliniti, nitrogen-nitrit (NO2-N), ortofosfat (PO4-P), penjumlahan bakteria dan kepekatan logam berat (Cd, Cu, Zn) dilakukan di dalam makmal. Suhu air yang mengandungi tumbuhan adalah dalam julat 24.9 oC hingga 27.5oC; manakala purata untuk pH air tangki E. crassipes and P. stratiotes adalah masing-masing 7.3 and 7.7. Keefisenan kedua-dua tumbuhan dalam pengurangan BOD5 adalah 50 hingga 93%, 9 hingga 75% (COD), dan 6 hingga 100% (TSS). Peningkatan oksigen terlarut dari 4 to 52% turut diperhatikan walaupun terdapat beberapa penurunan. Terdapat penurunan yang ketara bagi kandungan NH4-N (30 hingga 96%) dan NO3-N dalam air kedua-dua tangki tumbuhan. Bagaimanapun, air kumbahan yang tidak dirawat mempunyai kadar pengurangan yang lebih tinggi berbanding air yang dirawat akibat penggunaannya oleh alga. Sebaliknya, kandungan NO3-N dalam air yang dirawat oleh kedua-dua tumbuhan telah mengurang dengan banyak dari 0.2 hingga 12.7 mgL-1 dan kandungan PO4-P pula dari 1.51 hingga 6 mgL-1 berbanding air yang tidak dirawat iaitu dari14 hingga 28.2 mgL-1 (NO3-N) dan dari 5.3 hingga 11.1 mgL-1 (PO4-P). Penjumlahan bakteria telah mengurang sebanyak 30 hingga 81%, walaupun adakalanya bilangan koloni yang terbentuk lebih tinggi dengan kehadiran akar tumbuhan. Begitu juga dengan jumlah klorofil a yang pertumbuhannya dihalang oleh tumbuhan akuatik sebanyak 20 hingga 52% berbanding kawalan. Kandungan logam berat di dalam air kumbahan juga menurun (Cd, 94.7%; Cu, 92%; Zn, 95.2%) kerana keefisienan penyerapan oleh kedua-dua tumbuhan terutamanya oleh bahagian akar, daun dan diikuti oleh bahagian batang (E. crassipes). Kesimpulannya, kualiti air kumbahan yang dihasilkan adalah lebih baik selepas melalui rawatan.
Description: Dissertation -- Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 2009.
URI: http://dspace.fsktm.um.edu.my/handle/1812/597
Appears in Collections:Masters Dissertations : Science

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
Results and Discussion.pdfResults and Discussion592.57 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Front Cover.pdfFront Cover13.49 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.pdfAcknowledgement11.65 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
LIST OF PLATES.pdfList of Plates12.12 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Materials and methods.pdfMaterials and Methods2.42 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
ANOVA.pdfAnova626.13 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
LIST OF FIGURES.pdfList of Figures14.76 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Hasilkerja.pdfHasilkerja13.98 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
REFERENCES.pdfReferences98.84 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
ABSTRACT.pdfAbstract En.21.49 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
literature review.pdfLiterature Review110.84 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Appendix 7.pdfAppendix 731.41 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Conclusion.pdfConclusion14.11 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
List of Appendices.pdfList of Appendices18.23 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Introduction.pdfIntroduction165.27 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Appendix 7a.pdfAppendix 7a92.93 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
ABSTRAK.pdfAbstract Malay15.98 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Table Of Contents.pdfTable Of Contents24.52 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

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